Displaying your LIVErtising stones of knowledge 2019

May 10, 2019

May 26 update: check out your certification results on the corresponding blog page and the Q&A in the comments at the bottom of this post (by the way, you can follow the RSS feed for more comments and answers, you should know how to do this. Hint? Feedly)

Here is the final information relating to the LIVErtising oral exam. Please read this carefully: nothing new, but it is good to understand the real intent.

The contents of the exam

The exams bears on the different facets of the course, i.e.

  • the contents shared during each lecture based on the weekly keynotes AND on the oral explanations reflected in your personal notes
  • the videos embedded in the slides; if you missed any, you’ll be happy to find (most of) them on the course Youtube channel
  • some quizzes I have tweeted to you to test your knowledge, which now belongs to the course contents
  • the different platforms, sites or services I invited you to test all along the course
  • your own research based on the course

Your study must develop a solid understanding not only of these contents. It well also focus on the concepts that structure the course, and even more so the links between the different parts and their concepts. Do not base your study on the list below, which is only intended as a testing tool, not as a study basis.

The exam format

The evaluation itself will be based on three concepts from the course. You’ll draw three cards from a list including:
(1) core concepts (2) supporting concepts (3) illustrating concepts.



The above list is complete for the 2019 exam and replaces the 2018 list, which is not valid. You can ask questions about these concepts in the form of a comment at the bottom of this post; this will enable everyone to see it and read my answer too, or try to answer for yourselves.


Your task

Your aim will be to show you have clearly understood these concepts and how they relate to the evolution of marketing communication as we have analysed it in the course. In a nutshell, this evolution has taken us from

(1) interruptive/ top-down/ one-way/ outbound advertising over (2) permission/ bottom-up/ two-way/ inbound advertising to (3) networked/ collaborative/ social/ participatory/ connected communication (4) to reach a stage that is data-driven by algorithms, where AI is progressively taking over many aspects of marketing communication.

Each concept should be a door that opens up the global conceptual context it belongs to.

Additionally, your optional certifications with the Google Digital Garage or Hubspot Academy will prove very useful to extend your knowledge (I’ll publish the results soon after the deadline, May 17 at midnight, in 7 days) , and for those with a taste for even more, there is the information shared on Twitter with the #LIVErtising hashtag.

In a nutshell, your task will be to:

  • define those concepts
  • put them in their adequate conceptual context and develop that conceptual network
  • show how they connect with associated concepts
  • detail how they help us understand the evolution and specific digital dimension of marketing that the course focuses on

Make sure no language problem blurs your message – here is some revision work may boost your mastery of some basic aspects of the language.

This exam format is far more open than getting three question: it’s both easier and also more difficult. It gives you more possibilities: no danger of feeling stuck in a question you do not understand or remember – no set or expected answer, as long as it is relevant, information-rich, coherent and shows that you have understood the context. But is also gives you more responsibility: the need to build your own answer with all the bits and pieces of the course in order to provide a relevant answer that makes sense. In this respect the structure of your answer will be important.

I understand you may want to ask me questions about some of the above concepts. I invite you to submit all your questions as a comment at the bottom of this post. This will enable me to answer publicly and help you all. In earlier posts about the exam you’ll find my answers to such questions. You’ll already find an extensive Q&A list on the preceding posts announcing preceding exams. Please check that before submitting new queries.

The schedule

This is it, as tweeted earlier – mail me if you want to make a switch with someone else and both agree OR if you want to take the possibility to do the exam early, on May 24. If the windows below does not work, here is the direct link.

All the best to you all!

Like this? Share it!

26 Comments. Leave new

Hello Sir,

There is a concept for which I can not find any information, it’s “What to listen for and who to listen to?”. We talked about the concept listening in the course but I couldn’t find this particular concept in my notes. Could you please help me?

Thank you!


Hello Merve,
do not think too far and take this literally – it is the title of one of the slides by the way: while you’re applying the listening attitude, what are elements you should focus your monitoring and research on (e.g. visual content featuring your logo) and who for (e.g. competitors).

katia de Le Hoye
June 10, 2019 09:54

Hello Sir,

I have 2 questions I would like to ask you.

I was wondering if you can explain a bit more the concept of #hijacking. I don’t understand if it’s the fact to use the same #than the brand, but in a wrong way (MyNYPD) or if it’s when you modify the brand # (McDiabetes). Or are they both #hijacking techniques?

Which kinds of TV are considered as addressable TV? I understood that digital TV and smart TV are but I’m not so sure.

Best regards,

Katia de Le Hoye


1. Both are examples of hashtag jacking, Katia, as they divert a brand hashtag from its original (branded) purpose.
2. Addressable TV uses targeting techniques and personalised data that enable the advertiser to deliver a specific ad to each household, which is not (yet) allowed in France for instance, but used in the US and in the pipeline in Belgium.

Morgane Dethier
June 10, 2019 09:14

Hello Sir,

One tiny detail is bothering me. I’ve written in my notes that the CTR (click through rate) is a metric. But we made a clear difference between metrics and KPI saying that the first ones were raw numbers and the other numbers put in a context such as rates, percentages, etc. Have I written it wrong or is there another explanation?
Thank you. Have a nice day


Hello Morgane,
Number of clicks is more of a metric, CTR more of a KPI, for the very reason you are giving. This means that the metric/KPI disctinction is to be considered in terms of a cline rather than a yes/no difference. Raw numbers are indeed at the metric end of the cline; more abstract realities being measured will qualify as KPIs and involve measures that are compounded.

Morgane Dethier
June 10, 2019 10:03

Got it ! Thanks.


Hello Sir,

I would like to know if you have a good definition to make difference between cross channel and omnichannel?


Hello Audrey,
cross channel communication integrates all communication channels in the consumer journey leading to conversion, while in omnichannel communication you manage to bring all channels in synergy by optimizing them simultaneously: they are no longer working alongside each other but conjointly.
What do you think?


Yes, super thank you! I


Hello sir,

I was wandering if you could explain the exact difference between branded podcasts and native podcasts by also giving an example for both. It would help picture the concepts more easily.
Thank you


This distinction between native and branded applies throughough marketing communication – you can refer to the notion of native advertising: advertising content that tries to blur the line separating editorial from advertising content. Native advertising adopts the look and feel of the editorial context in which it appears, trying to immerse itself in that context and go unnoticed as advertising matter. Much influencer marketing plays on this: advertising pretending to be editorial, toeing the thin ethical line separating honest advertising from advertising deception. That is something that regular advertising, clearly marked as advertising content, recognisable in its format, its timing, its place and time, its codes, … does not do – commercial pre-rolls on Youtube for example are clearly marked as such, or Google Ads.
Just apply this difference to podcasts: some are “branded”, in that they convey the brand they are marketing very clearly, for example on their own channel on social networks; others are native as they are piggybacking on existing content providers, adopting their style and editorial line, placing their own commercial message in the background, merging it with the non-commercial content.


It does. Thank you very much !

Sarah Vande Wyer
June 5, 2019 15:06

I would like to know to what is related the core concept “Intent” as it can be many things.

Best of day



Hello Sarah,
you can consider “intent” as specific advantage of search over other non-search digital actions: it enables marketers to what the searcher is looking for – their intent – or intention, if you prefer. This clearly positions SEM in the framework of inbound marketing. Search engines themselves are focusing their efforts on a better understanding of the searcher’s intent underlying their queries. This is where the Hummingbird update and the unfolding of AI in Rankbrain by Google play an essential role.
Does this help you on your way, Sarah?

Rosalie Schallon
June 4, 2019 20:05

Hello Sir,
I have a question about “Statistical significance” : I have understood that our results have to be statisticly significant when we are comparing 2 things. So, we have hypothesis 0 = the one we want to verify and hypothesis 1 = the contrary. I think results of my test are statisticly significant when they are in one of the small areas (at the extremity of the graph). Now, I don’t understand how to link it with an A/B test, how can we compare 2 different versions of a website page for example with such a graph ? What statisticly significant means concerning the AB/test ?

Thank you for you help!


Hello Rosalie,
you’re right to check your understanding of that concept, because it requires precision. I assume you realize that your short presentation of H0 vs H1, although correct, is very summarized, right?
Now, applying the notion of statistical significance to A/B testing, or multivariate testing too, takes your original version as the baseline. For example, using the picture of your product to illustrate your product page. In an A/B test process (situation analysis, planning / statement of hypothesis, executing / experiment set up, measurement / statistical analysis) you’ll formulate hypotheses to improve your conversion rate. For example, you have heard that pictures featuring people sell better than pictures of objects, so you want to try out using a picture of two adolescents using your product to illustrate the same product page. You now have the baseline, version A with a product picture, also called control version, and the test version, version B with the adolescent picture. Your next step will be to test which does a better job by gathering the respective conversion rates. After one business cycle you’ll compare the results statistically, i.e. you’ll not only look at the difference (say, version A got 9 conversions from 120 visitors, version B got 16 conversions) to determine if the growth in conversions is sufficiently big to be arithmetically or statistically significant, you’ll also run a statistical test – you can use the tools I suggested or this one http://www.abtestcalculator.com/ – such a test will determine, comparing the theoretical distribution of conversions in version A and in version B, if the observed difference is due to chance (that is the no-difference hypothesis called H0) as it is not big enough on the basis of the number of observations, or if the observed difference is big enough to appear theoretically with a degree of probability that is so low (for example in only 5% of the theoretical distribution) that we agree it is **not** due to chance but to a real difference (this is H1, which we consider as validated with that very level of probability).
To express the same reasoning differently: the hypothesis of no-difference H0 is not rejected as long as the difference in conversion rates is not extreme enough to consider that the results belong to two different distribution curves, but that they actually belong to the same distribution and that the difference is due to chance only; as soon as the difference is big enough to appear with a low probability (the p-value, say 5%), you are going to consider that the results you got are too different to belong to the same distribution, so you’ll reject the null hypothesis with a degree of certainty of n% (also called confidence level). You never prove that H1 is correct, that is to say you never prove that there is a real difference; you can only reject the no-difference hypothesis with a certain degree of certainty. That degree of certainty is the risk you take of stating that H0 is rejected while it is actually true.
Now, depending on the nature of the data you compare (in an A/B test is the number of conversions), you’ll have to use a specific statistical test, which varies depending on the type of value. But the general reasoning applies in all those cases. Using the A/B test significance calculators we have mentioned prevents you from having to chose which test is adapted to A/B test. There are also other elements to take into account if you want to use statistics for scientific research, which we have completely overlooked, such as the power of a test.
I hope this helps!


Thank you so much!


+ I’m also confused about the term “FTC”. I know it stands for Federal Trade Commission, it protects consumers and prevent from anticompetitive business practices, but I don’t know at what part of the course we must connect that? Is it right to say that the FTC tackles ad’fraud? I’ve read that the FTC fights against advertising fraud but I think it’s about misleading advertising and not necessarily ad’fraud as we seen it in class (click fraud, …) ? Thank you 🙂


I like your question, Marie, because it enables me to clear up that concept while at the same time illustrating my hopes for the exam.
We met the FTC in our discussion of influencer marketing. One downside is indeed the fraud this generates. A major advertiser, Unilever, reacted fiercely against this at the end of 2018 in the world press. This has forced both the authorities and the advertising industry to tackle the problem. In the USA the FTC, whose job is to protect America’s consumers, has issued their FTC Rules for Influencers.
These are the basic elements to address the FTC concept as we saw it in LIVErtising 19.02 .
Now, this opens a network of connections that you are invited to explore. The more you do this, the better. Those connected concepts include:
– influencer marketing in general, of course, but more specifically how influencer fraud is addressed in Belgium (the JEP’s Recommandations en Matière de Marketing d’Influence), i.e. through self-regulation rather than law – this may connect to the IAB, which is the self-regulatory body covering so-called interactive, i.e. digital marketing communication;
– fraud in digital marketing more generally, which plagues different types of digital advertising, click fraud for instance; the causes of these frauds, the mechanisms, their impacts – for example the fact that this feeds the growing fake news concerns; also their solutions, one of which may include the use of the block chain (cfr the video about blockchain advertising).
This is not to say that you must include all these concepts in your answer, but that you can start from one concept, even a detailed one, to explore its connection network.
All right? Let me know!


Thank you so much for your answer 🙂 it does help !


Hello sir,

I’ve question about the term “We are Social Singapore” in the list. A lot of statistics in the course come from “we are social”, but not necessarily of Singapore. Is this a particular reason you added “singapore” in the list? I’m a little confused about that. Thank you 🙂


Hello Marie,
you are right, many slides with data about digital are branded “we are social”, with a repository you can find at https://datareportal.com/ . We Are Social is a global agency with offices all around the world. The Singapore offices have taken the lead in producing the reports sketching the state of digital at regular intervals, but Singapore is progressively dropped in references to the reports.
So, your question is legitimate but spots a point of detail.


A question that has just come in through mail: “I am writing to you concerning the term “mars” in the livertising vocabulary list. I truly cannot find it’s true meaning except for the fact that it is also a biscuit which is definitely not the correct answer. Could you help me understand what it is ? I will transfer the answer to the other students who are also stuck with this particular word/concept.”


Thank you Leïla. No help mailing me your questions, please ask them as a comment added to this blog post, which enables everybody to read both my and your peers’ answers.
Now, Mars! I remember adding this after sending the students’ keynote, so here is the slide: http://livertising.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/LIVErtising-19-05-Mars.png – does that help? Gauthier drilled down my own analysis by observing the branded box containing the Mars bars.
Let me know, OK?


Thank you very much, that does help !


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.