Your LIVErtising 3 stones of knowledge

April 1, 2018

To start you preparing the LIVE exam actively, here is the necessary information about the format and contents of the exam.

  • <May 15 update: the complete list of exam concepts can be found below>
  • <May 7 update: please check your Hubspot Certification results at the bottom of the post presenting the certification>
  • <May 5 update: add your questions and check answers in the comments at the bottom of this page – you can subscribe to the RSS feed of the comments and be informed each time there is something new – a preceding exam post also displays many questions and answers, which you can search with CTRL+F>

YOUR EXAMThree stones of knowledge FORMAT

The contents correspond to the information shared during the lectures, on the basis of the slides – I mean, the oral contents shared during the lectures, not just the slides. The evaluation itself will be based on three concepts from the course. You’ll draw at random three cards from a triple list including:
(1) core concepts (2) supporting concepts (3) illustrating concepts.


The above list is complete for the 2018 exam.



Your aim will be to show you have clearly understood these concepts and how they relate to the evolution of marketing communication as we have analysed it in the course. In a nutshell, this evolution has taken us from

(1) interruptive/ top-down/ one-way/ outbound advertising over (2) permission/ bottom-up/ two-way/ inbound advertising to (3) networked/ collaborative/ social/ participatory/ connected communication (4) to reach a stage that is data-driven by algorithms, where AI is progressively taking over many aspects of marketing communication.

Each concept should be a door that opens up the global conceptual context it belongs to.

You’ll use five sources of information to provide your answers:

  • the contents shared during each lecture and formalised in the corresponding keynotes; your notes must complete these slides
  • the videos embedded in the slides
  • some quizzes I’ll tweet to you soon to probe your knowledge
  • the different platforms, sites or services I invited you to test all along the course
  • your own research based on the course

Additionally, your optional Inbound marketing course with the Hubspot Academy will prove very useful to extend your knowledge, and for those with a taste for even more, there is the information shared on Twitter with the #LIVErtising hashtag.

In a nutshell, your task will be to:

  • define those concepts
  • put them in their adequate conceptual context and develop that conceptual network
  • show how they connect with associated concepts
  • detail how they help us understand the evolution and specific digital dimension of marketing that the course focuses on

Make sure no language problem blurs your message – here the language support should help, or your own language work if you feel your knowledge is shaky.

This exam format is far more open than getting three question: it’s both easier and also more difficult. It gives you more possibilities: no danger of feeling stuck in a question you do not understand or remember – no set or expected answer, as long as it is relevant, information-rich, coherent and shows that you have understood the context. But is also gives you more responsibility: the need to build your own answer with all the bits and pieces of the course in order to provide a relevant answer that makes sense. In this respect the structure of your answer will be important.


You can still get hold of the student’s notes on our Onedrive.

I understand you may want to ask me questions about some of the above concepts. I invite you to submit all your questions as a comment at the bottom of this post. This will enable me to answer publicly and help you all. In earlier posts about the exam you’ll find my answers to such questions.


I have embedded the timetable in the previous post. I draw your attention on the possibility to take the exam early, on May 25, or to make any change within the existing schedule as long as you suggest a switch between two students.

All the best to you all!

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7 Comments. Leave new

Anastasia Bousson
May 10, 2018 17:44

Hello !
I don’t clearly understand the difference between the ad exchange and the ad network. Can you help me clarify the difference ?

Thank you !


Hello Anastasia,

Even if these two concepts sound similar, they are not. Ad networks are actual companies offering a service: they aggregate unsold inventories from publishers, package them and sell them to parties interested in buying them (advertisers, agencies, media buying agencies or even other ad networks), completing this with for example targeting facilities. Through a network, real inventories or audiences are traded between a specific buyer and the network on the one hand and between a specific publisher and the same network on the other hand. The media impressions are traded at a fixed price.

Ad exchanges are places (i.e. virtual technology platforms, not actual companies) where the buying and selling of advertising inventory is automated and carried out using an auction (or bidding) system, where the transaction is mediated by the auction process, meaning that the exchange regulates offer and demand like the stock exchange does for securities, not at a fixed price. On ad exchanges you bid for an audience, rather than buy ad space or time.

Does that help?

Anastasia Bousson
May 16, 2018 17:15

It does, thanks !


Good! Feel free to fire other questions at me and to invite other students to do so as well!

@LIVErtising What’s the difference between long tail and post tail? I hope you can help me. Have a nice day!


They have nothing in common, not even the “tail”. In “post-tail” it actually means “post-retail”, or “post-purchase”. This is a stage in the CDJ (Customer Decision Journey) as developed by McKinsey to deal with the shortcomings of the traditional funnel. It corresponds to “care” in Kaushik’s see-thing-do-care model of communication strategy, or to the “engage” dimension in the RACE model by Smart Insights, or the “delight” phase in the Inbound attract-convert-close-delight model: leveraging the experience people have of the product/service to turn them into advocates, networking for your brand – i.e. enabling your brand to fully use the third stage of marcom: networked marketing.
The long tail on the other hand is a concepts that originates in statistics but became popular in marcom when Chris Anderson published his book “The Long Tail”, explaining “why the future of business is selling less of more”. It has been transfered from sales to SEO to apply to keywords. Long tail keywords (as opposed to head keywords) are multi-word queries (such as “best home insurance company for expats in Brussels”), which provide clear advantages in terms of SEO (lower competition, more targeted, more conversational). Neil Patel provides a clear explanation of how some brands leverage long tail keywords in this blog post – in case you want to dig deeper!
Is this clearer Graciela? Let me know.


Yes thank you!


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