Three stones of wisdom: LIVErtising exam concepts

May 24, 2013

Here is a post intended for my admasters students at IHECS. It provides some background for their oral exam and confirms the indications I gave earlier, while being more concrete and complete.

The exam will be based on three concepts from the course. You’ll draw at random three cards from a triple list inluding: (1) core concepts (2) supporting concepts (3) illustrating concepts. To help you realise if you are ready to take the exam, here is the complete list you’ll draw your concepts from:


  • Core concepts: 2.0, 2.0 communication model, Adsense, Adserver technology, advertising business model, Adwords, advertiser’s loss of power, advertising model evolving, affiliation, bottom-up, Clay Shirky, communication 2.0, community, consumer, content creation, content marketing, content strategy, context, control, conversation, CPM vs CPC, dangers of social media, destination web, display advertising, earned media, empowerment, engagement, experience creation, F-E-L-E-S-I-O-P-P, future of online advertising, generation C, generation P, Google, inbound marketing, interaction, interruptive communication, listening, listenomics, measuring online activity, networked communication, one-way communication, online, online tracking, optimisation, owned media, paid media, paid-owned-earned, participation, participatory platforms, people, permission marketing, presence vs strategy, presence web, prosumer, ROI, search, SEM, SEO, sharing, social capital, social media analytics, social media costs, social networks, social web, SOLOMO, the advertiser’s influence, the customer had changed, top-down, trust, UGC, user value, value creation
  • Supporting concepts: 30″ TV spot, 90-9-1 rule, A/B testing, ad exchange, Ad network, AJAX, amplify, API, banner ads,  blackhat techniques, Cluetrain Manifesto, consumers’ comments, conversion, cookie, CTA, CTR, dashboard, DHTML, display advertising, Doritos, Edelman Trust Barometer, Edgerank, email marketing, Facebook marketing, Flash, fragmentation, Free, Google Analytics, Google Penguin, Graph Search, hashtag, HTML 5, hub website,  landing page, lead generation, leaders/observers/participants, LinkedIn, local SEO, loss of control,  on-page/off-page optimization, online targetting, organic vs sponsored, outreach, Page rank, paid search, paywall, people centric vs object centric, platform, power shift, PPC, referencing & positioning, retargeting, RIA, Rich User Interface, SEA, search golden triangle, Slideshare, social bookmarking, social knowledge, social media command centre, social medi costs, Social Media Landscape, social media monitoring, social shopping, spamdexing, sponsored results, tablets, tagging, target, Trust rank, universal search, user comments, viral, widgets
  • Illustrative concepts: “plenty”, 48ers, Adobe Air, Alerti, Alterian SM2, Amzini, backlinking, Bing, blogging, Bodyform, BP Public Relations, Comcast technician, content spinning, Craigslist, curators, Cyfe,, Dell, DHTML, Digg, Doritos, embedded media, Expedition 206, FedEx, Flickr, Fred Cavazza, GigaAlert, Google alerts, Google algorythm, Googlebot Spoofer, Groupon, Hootsuite, horizontal vs vertical, Hubspot Marketing Grader, KLM, Kurrently, Google Mayday, microblogging, Nestlé Killer, Google Panda, Pinterest,, plugin, QDF, Radian 6, RSS,, SERP, Simply Measured, Social Mention, SocialBro, Spotify, Statcounter, Superbowl, Technorati, Tele-Accueil Call for Volunteer,, Tweetdeck, video sitemap, video SEO, Wikis, Woorank, Youtube

You are entitled to a 12-minute preparation time to develop an answer that:

  1. defines those concepts
  2. puts them in their adequate context 
  3. details how they help us understand the evolution that the course focuses on

Do not feel you should be able to speak a long time presenting each concept in itself: the idea is more to use them to show that you understand the context they belong to and where they fit in the evolution of marketing communication. In a nutshell, this evolution has taken us from (1) interruptive/top-down/one-way advertising to (2) permission/bottom-up/two-way advertising to (3) networked/collaborative/social/participatory/connected communication – three stages I have distinguished several times and detailed in other posts on this blog. Each concept should be a door that opens up the background it belongs to.

This exam format is far more open than getting three question. So, it’s easier and also more diffucult. It gives you more possibilities: no danger of feeling stuck in a question you do not understand or remember – no set or expected answer, as long as it is relevant, information-rich, coherent and shows that you have understood the context. But is also gives you more responsibility: the need to build your own answer with all the bits and pieces of the course.

I understand you may want to ask me questions about some of the above concepts. I invite you to submit all your questions as a comment at the bottom of this post. This will enable me to answer publicly and help you all.

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29 Comments. Leave new

June 1, 2013 19:58

I got the three different stages of the evolution of marketing, yet I’m wondering where the web 2.0 or the 2.0 communication model stick the best.
Is it in stage 2 or 3?
I’d say stage number two, because web 2.0 communication still is linear, BUT instead of having one way communication , the web 2.0 is user-centric (// top down–> bottom up) and enables consumers to express themselves –> two way communication…
Thanks for your time


Actually, web 2.0 is not a clear-cut set of technologies; it marks a turning point in the continuous evolution of the web. In 2004, when O’Reilly managed to establish the concept, the web was turning participative, showing many of the FELESIOPP characteristics (see his “What is web 2.0” for further information about the defining characteristics according to O’Reilly).

Since then, these characteristics have become expected ingredients of the web, leading progressively to the development of the semantic web, which some call web 3.0. Now, all this is an evolution, not separate stages.

What you claim is correct. I would add that web 2.0 itself has evolved and enabled social platforms to develop. These platforms are based not just on participation but on networks; they are networks. And have brought about that third stage in marketing communication, networked communication.

Check this in the two latest slides entitled web 2.0 on LIVErtising on Flickr: .


BTW, no shame on asking questions. My grandfather, a wise man, used to tell me only fools never ask questions.

Laurent Givron
June 1, 2013 17:30

Hello Sir,
I’m wondering, what are your expectations for the supporting concept of “online”? It’s so broad, I could use some help please,
Thank you,


You’re right, Laurent, there is so much to say about “online” it should be a core concept – I have corrected that in the post. Thank you!

Justine Gilliot
May 31, 2013 14:24

Hello Sir,

Another question, I’m sorry. It’s about (it sounds like it’s a mystery for everyone if I look at the conversation we have on our FB group). What exactly is it? Is it a participatory platform, a social bookmarking, or a curation platform?

Thank you in advance


You again? ;-p – Pixsy is a website that enables you to automate your search on the web. For instance, the command “.facebook -e ihecs” enables you to keep informed about all events mentioning “ihecs” on Facebook.

Do not worry too much about this; to answer your question I have visited Pixsy again and realised that it is less user-friendly than it used to be. I’ll drop it from the concepts.

Still, if you have taken the time to visit and explore it, keep it in your bookmarks to automate many things you do in a web browser. It IS useful, but a little tricky for the exam. Unless you claim the right to keep it 😉



Thank you for your answer. A bit clearer now thanks to the video “web TOPIX”. I guess I’ll pick my prize on monday.

Although, I’m really having troubles with AdExchange and AdNetwork. I’ve read many things about it, but still seems a bit confused. I know it’s a platform where publishers and advertisers virtually meet, so they can sell and buy targetted adspaces. But I guess this is not all.

What’s the main difference between both? Is AdNetwork the platform where AdExchange can be developed? They are both working with cookies – personal informations of the user- right?

Thank you in advance for your answer.


Tricky, technical aspect of the evolution of the online display industry Clara. I am sorry about this, but am not personally to blame for it. Not a detail, but an increasing share of that advertising field. I suggest you watch this video from the LIVErtising YouTube channel carefully:

You do not need to go much deeper than a complete understanding of this video. My explanations in class were not more thorough, even if this could be a course on its own.


Florence Vellemans
May 31, 2013 09:26

Yes, thanks a lot !


Hello mister Ranschaert, I hope you’re doing well. I contact you today to ask something about the exam in June. After re-reading all your courses, the notes of your slideshare presentations, after reading the 7 docs you posted on your site, and Internet search, I still couldn’t find the meaning of these 3 last concepts of yours : “Amplify”, “Googlebot Spoofer” and “Plenty”. Could you help me with those?

Have a nice day!



Hello Sixtine – it has taken me some time to answer, shame on me :o)

1. Amplification is the aim of networked communication, the third step in the evolution of marketing communication (are you with me here?): you are not basically addressing the first-level audience (your friends), but second-level audience (your friends’ network, i.e. your friends’ friends), and even further down the third-level audience and so on. Virality is based on amplification. Visually: .

2. Googlebot Spoofer, like SEO-Browser, offer the possibility to see your webpage like a search engine bot sees it, i.e. basically text-only. This enables you to realise the importance of SEO elements like alt-tags for pictures, video transcription and video sitemaps, i.e. on-page SEO.

3. F-E-L-E-S-I-O-P-P: last P for “plenty”. Traditional economics is not only based on financial capital (i.e. money, as opposed to social capital or whuffie), it is also based on rarity, on scarcity: something has more value if it is rare – cfr. price of gold and diamonds. The economics of social networks, of participatory communication, of conversation as an advertising model, is based on plenty, and on its corolary: free (or nearly so). Here, something has more value the more it is shared! Quite the opposite of traditional economics.

Still OK?

Florence Vellemans
May 30, 2013 08:28

Hello Mr Ranschaert,

I am a little bit lost with the concept “User value”.
Can you give me a clue ?

Thank you !


Hello Florence – you OK? – please read my other answer to Justine’s question about content creation – as both concepts overlap.




I have some trouble understanding the concept of “outreach”. I’ve been searching on Google and found some articles talking about outreach in the field of SEO, explaining how to create a relationship with influencers in order to get backlinks and authority for your website/blog. Is that what
you’re talking about or am I wrong ?

Thank you.


Hello Benoît – a picture is worth a thousand words, so here we go:

All right?

Justine Gilliot
May 29, 2013 20:56

Sir, thank you for your response. I do, however still have a few questions, if it’s alright.

– Is affiliated marketing and ref feral marketing the same? I read somewhere that they both use 3rd parties to drive sales to the retailer but affiliated marketing relies purely on financial motivation to drive sales whereas ref feral marketing relies on trust and personal relationships to drive sales. If this is true, how does the referral marketing uses trust and personal relationship to drive sales?

– I’m having a bit of a problem to explain referencing and positioning

– What do you mean by “content creation”?

Thank you in advance,
Best regards,



Hello Justine – working hard on this, aren’t you!

1. I have used affiliation, affiliate marketing and referral marketing as synonyms of each other, while some people make difference in what drives leads to the affiliate site.

2. The google page explaining how search works ( shows there are two first steps: crawling and indexing – they correspond to referencing and positioning respectively: it is important to be found (referencing) and then to score among the first results (positioning).

3. Content / value are the drivers of permission and networked communication: you get people to trust you, share your stuff, comment, tweet about you, spread your stuff… if your content, if the value you provide makes it worth is. Content creation is at the heart of the content strategy see from LIVErtising 5b). This involves the “whuffie” or social capital concept, as I am sure you realise!

Okey dokey?



Could you please clarify something to me concerning the main goal of TOPIX.
The way I understand it is that, as part of the CIM, TOPIX gives the possibility for consumers to share spontaneously their private informations (legal). Is that all? Is it only in for statistics purposes? Targeting has nothing to do with it?
The consumers know they are tracked on the Internet (even though this tracking is less important than a few years ago, thanks to the legalisation of “cookies”). My question is then: Why would consumers want to go on TOPIX to give more private informations? I feel like I have missed something…
Thank you in advance for your answer.


Hello Clara – you all right? – you should get a prize for pointing to a mistake which is all mine – I meant Web Topix, not just Topix, – Does that answer your question? Let me now hurry to correct this in my post ;-S

Justine Gilliot
May 27, 2013 08:09


it PPC and CPC the same? Or is PPC only for Google? Is the commission for CPC a “number” (ex: 0,1€ per click) and for PPC a percentage or am I totally wrong?

Thank you


PPC = Pay Per Click – the system where remuneration is based on results (the click)
CPC = cost per click: the actual cost of a single click, as you suggested.

Laura Van Buggenhoudt
May 26, 2013 14:34


Could you please enlighten me about the concept of ‘Local S.E.O.’ and why it gets more and more important to take into account?
I got the idea it has something to do with universal research and the fact that we go more and more mobile, but I can’t manage to link those elements.

Thank you in advance for your answer!


Hello Laura – surviving your study period? – So: local SEO – check our last Slideshare LIVErtising #6, more specifically this slide: – the main ideas are:

1. Get your SEO in order
2. Set up local profiles
3. Encourage customer reviews and ratings
4. Don’t forget the visuals
5. Update your profiles
I’m sure this will help you find the notes you made to expand this.

All right?

Bochaton Kim
May 26, 2013 11:36

I’ve been struggling with the concept “Tele Accueil for Volunteer”, i can’t find anything in my papers about it. I found some informations about volunt-ears but i guess that has nothing to do with it. Could you try explaining me what you expect us to say about that? In advance thank you very much.


Hello Kim – life OK? – the “Call for VoluntEARS campaign” by Tele-Accueil on Spotify is indeed a campaign case I used in LIVErtising #1 to illustrate my answer to the question “Where has the consumer gone” if they are no longer glued to mass / top-down media only. They are discovering and settling in the Social Media Landscape (

Here, my take is that, as communicators, you cannot restrict yourself to the Big Three – Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn. You must investigate other regions of the SM Landscape (I mean Social Media, no bad ideas here!) to spot opportunities that suit the advertiser’s communication goals or characteristics better. A case in point is the VoluntEARS campaign we discussed – – you should watch the video again too:


Justine Gilliot
May 26, 2013 09:42


I have a bit of a doubt. When you say “advertising business model”, do you mean the paid-owned-earned media, or do you mean the business model with the Adnetwork and AdExchange?

Thank you very much


Hello Justine – by “business model” I mean the way in which an organisation or business or industry sector structures its activities to reach its basic goal: delivering value while being financially viable. An example to illustrate my definition: social sharing sites such as Flickr or Slideshare, or platforms such as LinkedIn have a business model based on Fremium + Premium subscriptions. This is the context to better understand the concept.

I have used it in the course to claim that the traditional business model is dying – and this is one of the reasons why advertisers should go all the trouble getting involved in conversation marketing and participation. That model is illustrated by this slide from LIVErtising 2: . In very broad terms, advertising used to provide the audience with cheap content, because the media got paid by the advertiser’s money for providing the advertisers with the audience’s attention.

A matter of fact Patrick Lelay, TF1’s CEO summarised in a way that got heavy criticism: “Il y a beaucoup de façons de parler de la télévision. Mais dans une perspective ”business”, soyons réaliste : à la base, le métier de TF1, c’est d’aider Coca-Cola, par exemple, à vendre son produit (…). Or pour qu’un message publicitaire soit perçu, il faut que le cerveau du téléspectateur soit disponible. Nos émissions ont pour vocation de le rendre disponible : c’est-à-dire de le divertir, de le détendre pour le préparer entre deux messages. Ce que nous vendons à Coca-Cola, c’est du temps de cerveau humain disponible (…). (Dépêche AFP du 9 juillet 04, reprise notamment par Libération (10-11/07/04) : ” Patrick Le Lay, décerveleur ”.)

This business model, which traditional media and traditional advertising used to be based on, is now dying, as the Internet has made much content free, blowing up the mechanics of the model.

OK? This is where your reading of Anderson’s article about FREE helps you go further.

Lippert Alizée
May 24, 2013 10:02

I don’t really understand the concept “listenomics”.
I know there is a link with the story “Dell hell” but I don’t get what listenomics really is.
Could you help me?
Thank you!


Hello Alizée,
The shift in the communication model triggered by web 2.0 forces advertisers to listen, for at least three reasons. First, the “target”, the audience, the customer now have a voice. They have the tools and the media channels to express themselves – they are enabled – and they do so, they enjoy doing so (cfr generation C and P). This changes the preceding situation of communication imbalance (cfr top down communication). As the brands’ audience also have a say, brands had better listen to their audience talking. Second, the tone of voice, the mood, the way of expressing yourself on social media is different from traditional brandspeak. As a brand, if you want to be accepted on social media, if you want your voice there to be accepted, trusted, listened to, you need to abandon your corporate speak and learn the language of social media. You do that by listening into those platforms. Three: the tracking possibilities offered by online media (cfr: measuring interaction – participation – conversion – outreach) have made ROI a standard requirement. Listening tools can’t be ignored here either.

The mistake Dell made quite some time ago now was ignoring the first reason to listen in to your audience.

I have dealt with this topic in LIVErtising #3 under the title “Listenomics”, or the science of listening: . Please check that out. And let me know if I have answered your question!


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